Blood Conservation Professionals– in demand
With record numbers of Blood Conservation Programs opening up surgeons, nurses, perfusionists and other medical professionals trained in Patient Blood Management are in huge demand.
Is transfusion-free surgery something recent? The answer will surprise professionals and laypeople alike.
Patient Blood Management
A new catch phrase in blood conservation is Patient Blood Management – what exactly is it? It is important for patients seeking Bloodless Care to understand what the term means and what it does not mean.
Not all "bloodless surgery" is Bloodless Surgery
Patients need to know the difference between Bloodless Surgery and surgery that simply doesn't involve a blood transfusion.
Will donating my own blood guarantee me a safe blood transfusion?
Preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) is a procedure where blood is removed from the patient before surgery and is stored – possibly for weeks – and is then transfused back into the patient at the time of surgery. Is donating my own blood the best way to get a safe blood transfusion?
When is a blood transfusion necessary?
Doctors have diverse opinions, but the tide is changing as reports pour in from around the world. A 100 year old concept about the "transfusion trigger" has recently been updated.
National Anemia Action Council Advisory
"Avoid transfusion regardless of the level of preoperative anemia."
"Allogeneic blood transfusion should be avoided whenever possible, not only because of associated risks but also because transfusion has not been proven to improve postoperative outcomes."
Many types of transfusion-free surgeries are performed
What types of transfusion-free surgeries are there? Open heart, spinal, cranial, knee and hip replacements, transplants, colon surgeries and many more are all performed safely and effectively without blood transfusion. Any elective surgery can be performed without administering blood transfusions.
Safe blood substitutes
Are there safe blood substitutes available that don't carry the risks of transfused blood? Ringer’s lactate, saline solution and others. All these and more are safe and effective non blood substitutes that carry no risk of infection, immune suppression or post surgical mortality.
"[There are] over 3000 articles... in the [medical] literature delineating the risks of blood transfusion."
-Ann Thorac Surg 2002; 74:986-987
Blood transfusion complications
What are possible blood transfusion complications? The list of risks of blood transfusions is surprisingly long and growing longer as new viruses emerge. Blood transfusion side effects vary from mild to deadly.
Bloodless Medicine in China is writing new chapters. Chinese surgeons are training in the United States; Peking Union Medical College is starting a Bloodless Surgery and Medicine Program; and more...
Blood transfusion deaths
Is death due to a blood transfusion common? While blood may be 'safer than ever' emerging data reveal that a more common than previously thought reaction to blood transfusion is death, which may not occur immediately after a transfusion but months or years later.
Anemia and Bloodless Surgery - even severely anemic patients have transfusion-free surgery
Anemia is the most common reason for giving a blood transfusion. Is it possible to have transfusion-free surgery if a patient's blood count is low? New surgical techniques are re-writing the history books and changing old ideas.
Implementing a Blood Conservation Program in your hospital
Find links to various professional groups that can help your hospital implement a cost saving Patient Blood Management Program. The long list of cost effective examples of transfusion-free surgical techniques provides hospital administrators with many choices. Surgeons can see that transfusion-free surgery saves their patients thousands of dollars as well as give superior outcomes.
What is a bloodless transfusion?
Many patients who want to avoid blood transfusion complications do not object to 'bloodless transfusions' – that is the transfusion of saline solution, volume expanders and other bloodless products.
Is all the hype about blood transfusions problems based on real science?
Thousands of peer reviewed articles by prestigious medical and scientific journals as well as well documented studies involving thousands of patients lay a solid scientific foundation for the safety and efficacy of surgery without blood.
Should I have a No Blood medical directive CARD?
The first line of defense in a medical emergency is to inform emergency medical personnel of your determination to avoid a blood transfusion.
"There's an avalanche of data that supports bloodless medicine."
-Dr. Deitch, Chairman of the Department of Surgery at New Jersey Medical School
St. Bartholomeo's – Minnesota's Best Bloodless Hospital
Over 300 Physicians and 200 Medical Support Personnel in Minnesota's oldest Bloodless Surgery and Medicine Center
Contact Jessica Peters – Bloodless Liaison 555-345-12345
Why do I need an advance medical directive FORM?
Legal experts agree that a well thought out an Advance Medical Directive form is a necessity. Both the Patient Self-Determination Act and the United Nations Act (E/C.12/2000/4) grant adults the legal right to refuse any medical treatment that the do not want. "It's better to have one and not need it, than to need one and not have it." -Marci Carter, Center for Bloodless Medicine and Surgery, Penn Medicine
Diet prepares patients for Bloodless Surgery
What foods can I eat before a Bloodless Operation?
Can certain foods boost my red blood cell count?
Or are there foods that I should avoid?
Salicylate, a natural substance that thins blood, is found in many common foods. Bloodless Patients should consider avoiding some of these foods.
Medications that interfere with blood conservation methods
Some medications can help and others can interfere with blood clotting factors. MyBlood is compiling a list of which medications to avoid before a Bloodless Operation.
Look here for a future article on this subject.
How to avoid a blood transfusion
What can I do to avoid a blood transfusion? More and more people around the world are asking this question. The answer is not complicated and more options are available than ever before.
"You have to remember that blood is not a drug -- it's an organ."
-Dr. Aryeh Shander, Englewood Hospital and Medical Center
Are there differences between Bloodless Surgery Programs?
How can I choose between different Bloodless Programs? How does a patient choose one Bloodless Program over another? Some localities have more than one hospital that offer Bloodless Surgery. And not all Bloodless Surgery programs are the same.
Transfusion-free surgery today- what does it mean?
Transfusion-free surgery has evolved over the decades and is still evolving. The term means different things in different parts of the world. Find out what the current technology includes in the most advanced Bloodless Care Programs.
Check back here for a future article
Not all Blood Conservation Programs are the same
Are all Blood Conservation Programs the same? Unfortunately the answer is no. Patients need to learn the differences between them before they turn their health and their future over to a hospital. Learn about the dissimilarities here.
Bloodless Surgery – our definition
The term "Bloodless Surgery" refers to surgery where allogeneic blood transfusions are skillfully and purposely avoided by the use of highly advanced surgical techniques and devices. Bloodless Surgery, as used by MyBlood, does NOT refer to reducing the need for blood transfusions, but refers to the complete elimination of allogeneic blood transfusions – that is, blood from a donor – because the patient has determined that they will not accept a blood transfusion under any and all circumstances. In other words, MyBlood uses the term Bloodless Surgery to refer to Total Blood Avoidance.
Is transfusion-free surgery risky?
Over 100,000 doctors worldwide perform transfusion-free surgery. 20,000 to 30,000 of these surgeries are performed in the United States every year.
Not all Bloodless Surgery and Medicine Programs the same
Read our survey of over 70 Bloodless Medicine Programs. The disparity between different programs, some in the same city, will surprise both medical professionals and patients.
"[Blood] is the most dangerous substance we use in medicine."
-Dr. Charles B Huggins, Nobel Prize Recipient
The Society for the Advancement of Blood Management
SABM is the premier organization of its kind in the world. Its members' accomplishments in the field of transfusion-free alternatives are numerous and constitute the 'tip of the sword' in the battle to establish Transfusion-free Medicine and Blood Management as the de facto standard of medicine worldwide. Bloodless Care may for everyone may be just around the corner.
Bloodless Surgery and Medicine Programs – a description
A Bloodless Surgery and Medicine Program generally refers to a surgical program in a hospital where homologous blood transfusions (blood from another patient) are carefully and intentionally avoided in order to fulfill a patient’s desire to avoid receiving a blood transfusion. These programs are expansive, detailed and complex and all of the techniques used have to meet the highest standards possible. Patient Oriented Blood Management Programs are an offshoot of Bloodless Medicine and are also growing in popularity.
Minimal risks of transfusion-free surgery
What, if any, are the disadvantages of Bloodless Surgery? All surgery carries a degree of risk. Bloodless Surgery is no different. A patient should be well informed of both the risks and benefits of Bloodless Surgery. Find out how to make an informed decision. Don't be left in the dark.
Synthetic Blood Substitutes
Scientists dream of a human blood substitute – something that can be given to a patient that needs a blood transfusion but that does not carry the risks of blood. Can human blood be duplicated?
Is transfusion-free surgery more expensive than traditional surgery?
Some have claimed that patients who opt for transfusion-free surgery are placing an unnecessary burden on hospitals by incurring higher costs in training surgeons and in establishing and maintaining Bloodless Surgery Programs. Is this true?
Questions about the safety of the blood supply still persist and more patients than ever are asking if there are safe alternatives to human blood. The list of alternatives is longer than many believe and they available now.
"I heard about Bloodless Care from a friend who's blood count dropped to 3.
She was out of the hospital in ten days and is doing fine."
No universal definition of Bloodless Surgery
Is there a universal definition of Bloodless Surgery? Unfortunately the answer is... No. This is why it is important to be well informed. The term can have different meanings in different regions, hospitals and among doctors in the same hospital.
Is it safer to have transfusion-free surgery than traditional surgery?
More and more evidence is giving a solid scientifically based answer to this question.
Transfusion-free surgery is not experimental
With the exception of some rare experimental procedures nothing done in transfusion-free surgery is experimental. All methods and procedures are approved by the FDA.
The articles on this page focus primarily on medical professionals - surgeons, perfusionists, nurses, physician's assistants, anesthesiologists and others - who are interested in either Bloodless Medicine or Patient Blood Management.
The Hungarian surgeon died in an insane asylum. Yet you may owe him your life. He went mad fighting a similar battle as that of the modern Bloodless Surgeon or Conservationist.
Not all "bloodless surgery" is Bloodless Surgery
Iris, an 89 year old woman, had her chest sliced open to remove a tumor from her heart. She had her hip replaced, two new knees "installed" and her gall bladder removed. Julio had both arms ripped off and was left on the hospital gurney for two hours without medical treatment and without any effort by the doctors to stop his bleeding. Henry lost 90% of his blood and his hemoglobin plummeted to 20% of the lowest acceptable threshold. What do they all have in common?
Iris, beginning at age 84, had the five operations without a single drop of blood transfused into her body. Her age makes her unique but her story isn't. Among the 100,000 Bloodless Surgeons worldwide many are doing even more complicated surgeries than her hip and knee replacements and her open-chest surgery – but most of them are routinely performing "ordinary" operations like the removal of Iris' gall bladder. Bloodless Operations are done everyday on every conceivable kind of patient in every conceivable medical situation – all without transfusing one micro liter of blood.
Henry was unconscious – he only had 10% of his blood left dribbling through his veins. He was given up for dead by conventional doctors when he was transferred to a Bloodless Hospital that not only saved his life, but did it without giving him a blood transfusion.
Julio was one of the first and most dramatic trauma surgeries performed without a blood transfusion in Virginia, USA – but his surgery was not really Bloodless Surgery. No, not all surgeries performed without blood transfusions are truly Bloodless Surgeries. He survived nonetheless, is healthy, and returned to the University Hospital once a year for the next twelve years to lecture to new medical students on the ethics of Bloodless Surgery. In spite of Julio's dramatic and quick recover - due to his refusal of blood - the university still has no Bloodless Medicine Program. (Learn more about Julio's experience.)
Not all "bloodless surgery" is Bloodless Surgery
Bloodless Surgery is more than simply performing surgery without giving a patient a blood transfusion, such as in Julio’s case. Tens of thousands of surgeries are performed worldwide every year without administering blood products but these cannot be called Bloodless Surgeries in the modern sense of the word. Bloodless Surgery has as its goal the deliberate avoidance of allogenic blood products. It refers to surgery where blood transfusions might normally be given but are carefully and purposely avoided because the patient has determined that they will not accept a blood transfusion under any and all circumstances.
Bloodless Surgery is a specialty field in itself. Bloodless Surgeons require specialized training and special surgical devices in order to conserve blood, minimize blood loss and avoid the administration of blood products in a variety of operations and situations. Dozens of specialized, highly advanced techniques that are not used by ordinary, conventional surgeons are employed by Bloodless Surgeons and their support personal.
Bloodless Surgery is clearly distinguished from "bloodless surgery" and the gap between the two is enormous.
A "bloodless surgery" scenario
For example, a patient may undergo a minimally invasive bloodless surgery procedure and be under the impression that his surgery will be a totally bloodless procedure. (Minimally invasive surgery does have as one its goals minimal blood loss.)
However, the surgery may encounter severe unforeseen blood loss. A surgical error, an undetected aneurysm that bursts or other situations may turn a bloodless surgery into a very bloody procedure that could result in severe blood loss.
His surgeon, though performing a "bloodless surgery", is not trained or prepared to handle the massive blood loss and avoid the administration of blood products. If blood loss is severe enough a blood transfusion will likely be seen by his surgeon as the only solution to the emergency because the surgeon is not trained in Bloodless Surgery techniques.
Take the same scenario. Another patient is having the same minimally invasive procedure performed by a Bloodless Surgeon in a Bloodless Hospital. A small abdominal aortic aneurysm bursts and the patient experiences heavy blood loss. The surgical team is prepared for this emergency. Using a cell salvage machine they are able to salvage most of his blood and return it to his circulatory system as they repair the aneurism.
Employing other techniques, blood loss is minimized and a blood transfusion is avoided. (This is an oversimplification of Bloodless Surgery and all that is involved. This scenario is presented in this way as an example only in order to distinguish the difference between "bloodless surgery" and genuine Bloodless Surgery. Click here to learn about the many techniques used in Bloodless Surgery.)
The outcome for the two patients is entirely different. The second patient leaves the hospital sooner because of faster recovery time, has no fear of having contracted a blood borne disease and also has a post surgical mortality rate three to five times lower than the first patient who received the blood transfusion.
The first patient may have entered the operating room for a bloodless surgical procedure and yet find himself faced with a situation that his surgeon is not prepared to handle. He is transfused with a stranger’s blood and spends years worrying if he has contracted AIDS or some other lethal disease.
From this simple example it can be seen that "bloodless surgery" is not Bloodless Surgery. A patient needs to clearly understand the difference between the two.
It can also be seen that Julio's surgeons, although they purposely avoided giving Julio a blood transfusion, were not really performing Bloodless Surgery as it is known today.
"I had a transfusion two years ago...
I can't stop wondering if I have HIV."
Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is not Bloodless Surgery
Although minimally invasive surgeries – also called laparoscopic surgery - may reduce or eliminate the use of blood products by their minimally invasive nature as opposed to open surgery, they are generally not referred to as Bloodless Surgery in the medical industry.
Since some in the general public may think of minimally invasive surgery as Bloodless Surgery, that is never requiring a blood transfusion, MyBlood capitalizes the phrase bloodless surgery as "Bloodless Surgery" when it is used in the sense described above, to distinguish Bloodless Surgery from minimally invasive surgery.
Radio surgery, though bloodless, is not Bloodless Surgery
"Radiosurgery is a medical procedure that allows non-invasive treatment of benign and malignant tumors. It is also known as stereotactic radiotherapy, (SRS) when used to target lesions in the brain, and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) when used to target lesions in the body." Wikipedia
Although Radio Surgery is bloodless surgery, it too is not true Bloodless Surgery as is used in the medical industry.
What does real Bloodless Surgery involve? Most of the advanced procedures and options used in Bloodless Surgery are:
• Ultrasonic scalpel / harmonic scalpel
• Hypotensive Anesthesia
• Proper Patient Positioning
• Synthetic Erythropoieten - EPO
• Pulse Oximetry
• Intravenous fluid replacement – volume expanders
• Hyperoxic Ventilation
• Multi Staged Operations
- Argon beam coagulator
- Harmonic Scalpel/Ultrasonic Scalpel
- Laser surgery
• Prompt surgery
• Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
• Tissue adhesives
• Hematopoietic agents
Click here to read an extensive article that explains all the above listed techniques and how they are used in Bloodless Surgery.
Bloodless surgery is more than simply a surgical procedure
However Bloodless Surgery means more than using these specialized techniques. Bloodless Surgery generally refers to the entire process of treating a patient who does not want transfused blood products and not simply to the Bloodless Operation itself. Specific preparation of the patient is generally required prior to, during and following surgery. Certain prescription drugs may be avoided prior to or during surgery to reduce blood loss.
Other medicines, such as EPO (Erythropoietin) , may be administered prior to, during or after surgery to stimulate red blood cell production. A special diet may be instituted prior to surgery to stimulate blood cell growth. Nurses with specialized training are usually involved in the care of a Bloodless Patient. Many other Bloodless Medical Professionals support a prolonged process that clearly distinguishes a conventional surgery from Bloodless Surgery. All these professionals and all the support programs create a Bloodless Medicine and Surgery Program that supports a Bloodless Patient from beginning to end.
Although Julio didn't have these luxuries back in 1987, and the skill of his surgeons carried him through his ordeal, risks were necessarily taken that can now be avoided by newer and easily accessible Bloodless Surgery techniques and advances.
A Bloodless Medicine and Surgery Program is broad, detailed and complex. Therefore, Bloodless Surgery (or Bloodless Surgery and Medicine) are terms with an extensive application. This is why MyBlood capitalizes the phrase "Bloodless Surgery" to distinguish genuine Bloodless Surgery from minimally invasive surgery or radio surgery which will not involve special drugs, nurses, administrators, programs and dietitians or have a fully instituted Bloodless Surgery and Medicine Program and from surgeries that don't transfuse blood because they simply were not required.
• MyBlood uses the terms Bloodless Surgery and Bloodless Surgery and Medicine interchangeably. Therefore, Bloodless Medicine in our site refers to Bloodless Surgery.
Are all "bloodless surgeons" really Bloodless Surgeons?
This excerpt from Melanie's experience underscores the importance of finding a "bloodless surgeon" who is truly a well qualified Bloodless Surgeon.
"The experience with my dad illustrates vividly that even though a doctor says that he can perform bloodless surgery it doesn’t mean that he has the best training or is up to date on the latest procedures.
"[Prior to his surgery] the doctors put Dad on EPO [Erythropoietin] shots for eight weeks to boost his red blood count without giving him iron or monitoring his iron levels. At that time we did not yet know the critical importance of administering iron with EPO. It turned out Dad was iron deficient and the EPO shots were seriously drawing on what little iron reserves he had to make red blood cells.
"The doctor was not sharp on the latest bloodless medicine protocols and did not receive suggestions from us on to how to improve my father’s treatment.
"By early December 2005, Dad was in full blown heart failure and would NOW have to be hospitalized. I expressed our concern about the doctors involved. I did not want to end up in a hospital where we would be stuck with those doctors who had created the bad situation. The cardiologist by that time was also pretty frustrated with the other doctors and he agreed to help us get dad admitted to Duke University’s heart failure clinic where they have a blood conservation program.
"The surgery was done bloodless, with the use of cell salvage and hemodilution. He recovered more quickly than other patients. Nurses and doctors outside of the blood conservation program kept saying, 'We should do this for every patient.'" Read the entire account. Click here.
Not all bloodless surgery is Bloodless Surgery and not all bloodless surgeons are Bloodless Surgeons.
Bloodless Surgery is for Everyone
Iris, Henry, Julio, Melanie's father. What do they have in common? They, along with over one hundred thousand patients worldwide (in the last five years alone) are living monuments to the fact that Bloodless Surgery is the best option for everyone in every surgical situation. If Bloodless Surgery worked for them then Bloodless Surgery is truly for everyone else.
End of article... Additional information below.
Bloodless Surgery uses blood
Bloodless Surgery does not necessarily mean surgery without the use of blood, nor does the term refer to surgery where a patient does not bleed. Bloodless Surgery refers to any surgery where homologous blood transfusions (blood from another patient) might normally be administered but are carefully and purposely avoided in order to satisfy a patient’s desire to avoid blood products from another person.
Bloodless Surgery often involves the use of the patient’s own blood which is removed by cell salvage machines and re-infused back into the patient. MyBlood uses the term Bloodless Surgery in this sense. (Click here to read about the many techniques used in Bloodless Surgery.)
Bloodless Surgery does not necessarily mean avoiding a transfusion since many medicines and solutions may be transfused into the patient prior to or during surgery - but instead means avoiding a homologous blood transfusion.
Various procedures and use of blood
Some surgical blood processing devices and machines store the patient’s blood temporarily before it is returned to the patient’s bloodstream. This distinction needs to be made to the patient since some refuse to have their blood stored for reasons of religious conscience. From this it can be seen that not all Bloodless Surgery is equal. However, most Bloodless Surgeries can avoid the storage of blood and provide the patient with a continuous flow of blood from the time it leaves his circulatory system and is restored.
Bloodless Surgery terms used on the MyBlood website
Since bloodless surgery is not truly Bloodless Surgery MyBlood uses various phrases to distinguish true Bloodless Surgery and its associated terms from conventional surgery and its related expressions.
"Bloodless Surgeon" is used to distinguish a surgeon with specialized training in Bloodless Surgery. MyBlood uses the phrase "Bloodless Patient" to distinguish a patient who wants Bloodless Surgery from the average patient who does not. "Bloodless Operation" refers to an operation where blood products are purposely avoided because of the patient’s desire to avoid them and not to minimally invasive operations that are generally bloodless in nature. "Bloodless Hospital" likewise refers to a hospital that specializes in Bloodless Surgery and has a Bloodless Surgery and Medicine Program administered by professionals familiar with the all-encompassing techniques and procedures involved in Bloodless Surgery. A "Bloodless Nurse", "Bloodless Medical Professional" and other terms will be evident by the use of capital letters. We won’t list them all here but the concept is clear.
Minimally invasive surgery has many benefits
There are now available many minimally invasive surgeries (MIS) that have replaced traditional surgical procedures that generally required the transfusion of blood products. These MIS procedures are generally safe and completely avoid the need for a blood transfusion. A Bloodless Patient may opt for an MIS procedure knowing full well that although they are generally very safe there is a minute risk involved – the risk of complications that may urge a regular surgeon to transfuse blood.
Also, in some regions and in some countries Bloodless Hospitals with qualified Bloodless Surgeons may not exist, or be extremely rare (Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, China and other areas are notably lacking in Bloodless Medicine). Also, in theses areas hospitals that provide MIS procedures may not be well known but may offer the only option for a Bloodless Patient since the MIS procedure inherently will cause less blood loss. MyBlood lists some of these hospitals in our website for the benefit of those patients.
Also, many MIS procedures are done in Bloodless Hospitals as well, which combines the best of both worlds. Therefore, where appropriate, MyBlood makes reference to these hospitals or these procedures. Although Minimally Invasive Surgery is not true Bloodless Surgery it has many benefits to the Bloodless Patient when it is used in a Bloodless Surgery setting.
Listen to the experts
"Everything in health care can be done without blood (transfusions)."
Dr. Aryeh Shander, Engle Wood Hospital
"[Bloodless surgery] has now grown into a serious practice being embraced by internationally respected clinicians and institutions."
V. Martin et al, (Abstract)Transfusion and Apheresis Science 2002 Aug;27(1):29-43
"This is nothing experimental. These [bloodless surgeries] are procedures being done other places. We have data from around the country to support everything we're doing here."
Dr. Jerry Kelley, Northeast Baptist Hospital in San Antonio
"An increasing number of physicians are taking a harder look at bloodless medicine."
John Langone, Time Magazine, Oct. 01, 1997
"We have enough skills along with latest technology that we can do surgery without blood."
Mary Ann Rouch, Blood Conservation Program Coordinator, Presbyterian Hospital of Plano
"Bloodless surgery is also preferable to having patients transfused with their own blood."
Dr. Charles Bridges, Cardiologist, Pennsylvania Hospital
"Doctors who give critically ill patients blood transfusions to correct their anaemia may be doing those patients a disservice."
Deborah Josefson Nebraska, BMJ 2002;325:735 (5 October) - JAMA 2002;288:1499-507
"The savings to hospitals that have employed a comprehensive program of reducing blood transfusions is, like, $3 million to $4 million a year. It's saving on the cost of nursing time, the cost of blood, the reduction in infections, side effects and complications."
Dr. Seski, Chief of Gynecologic Oncology, Allegheny General
"Stored blood is impaired in its ability to deliver oxygen."
Dr Jonathan Stamler (Duke University Medical Center
"How Did We Get a ‘Magic Number’? The aetiology of the requirement that a patient have 10 grams of hemoglobin (Hgb) prior to receiving an anaesthetic is cloaked in tradition, shrouded in obscurity, and unsubstantiated by clinical or experimental evidence."
Professor Howard L. Zauder
"Exposure to 1 or 2 U[nits] of RBCs [red blood cells] was associated with a 16% increased hazard of decreased survival after cardiac surgery."
Stephen D. Surgenor, MD, MS et al Anesthesia & Analgesia
"Banked blood [Is] not the same as the blood in the body."
Duke Med News Oct 8. 2007
"[Blood] is the most dangerous substance we use in medicine."
Dr. Charles B Huggins, Nobel Prize Recipient
"For more than 25 years, ABO transfusion errors in the United States have caused more noninfectious transfusion deaths each year than any other cause. The US ABO error rate is between 1:12,000 and 1:19,000, with a fatality rate between 1:800,000 and 1:1.3 million."
Sazama K., The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
What is a Bloodless Surgeon?
Is Bloodless Surgery Risky?
Are there disadvantages of Bloodless Surgery?
Is Bloodless Surgery experimental?
Are Blood Conservations the Same as Bloodless Surgery Programs?
Are all Bloodless Surgery Programs the same?
Is preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) the answer?
When is a blood transfusion necessary?
Is it safer to have Bloodless Surgery?